Let’s Talk Mechanic’s Lien Rights in Canada
Over the last few years, several provinces in Canada have modernized or proposed amendments to their mechanic’s lien laws. Notably, Ontario paved the way for longer lien deadlines and prompt pay statutes, with its changes in 2018. Like lien rights in the U.S., each of Canada’s provinces has its own statute, which dictates when/if a notice should be served, when a lien should be recorded, and when a suit action must be initiated. So, let’s travel north and review the steps for securing mechanic’s lien rights in Canada.
Project Types: Private, Provincial Crown, Federal Crown
Although today’s post is primarily about mechanic’s lien rights in Canada, it’s worth noting that projects in Canada will fall into one of three categories:
- Private: improvement contracted by a private entity, e.g., a person, company, or corporation
- Provincial Crown: improvement of public works or building under formal contract made by Provincial government
- Federal Crown: a contract for construction, alteration, or repair of any public building or public work of the Canadian government
Provincial and Federal Crown projects are generally not lienable, and any remedy available to claimants will likely be under a Labour & Material Bond. The Labour & Material Bond is a surety bond issued as assurance of payment to certain parties should the principal of the bond breach their construction contract.
10 Provinces, 3 Territories, 1 Requires a Preliminary Notice
Canada is comprised of 10 provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland / Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and 3 territories: Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon. Only one requires a preliminary notice to preserve mechanic’s lien rights: Quebec.
For those familiar with securing lien rights in the U.S., it may seem odd to not have a preliminary notice requirement. After all, most states require a preliminary notice and NCS’ research shows 97% of the time serving a notice will prompt payment, reducing the likelihood of a mechanic’s lien.
Though most Canadian provinces do not have preliminary notice requirements, you could serve a non-statutory notice. This gently worded notice alerts parties on the ladder of supply that you are (or will be) furnishing to the project.
Is 1 the loneliest number? If you are furnishing to a project in Quebec, you should serve notice (Declaration of Contract) upon the owner prior to furnishing or prior to the fabrication of specially fabricated materials. The lien (aka legal hypothec), when later filed, will be limited to the materials or services provided after the notice has been served.
I did say only 1 province has a notice requirement, and while that is technically the case, both Ontario and Nova Scotia provide claimants an opportunity to serve a written request upon the owner, prime contractor, or subcontractor for project information and a copy of any payment bond.
Also, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Saskatchewan have a Notice of Lien which may be served upon the payer (the owner, prime contractor, and subcontractor), requiring them to retain, in addition to the holdback, an amount sufficient to satisfy a lien.
Lien & Suit Deadlines Will Sneak Up on You
When you review the chart below, you may notice two things right away: the lien deadlines are often calculated from your last furnishing, and the deadlines happen quite quickly. In the U.S., we frequently see lien deadlines within 90-120 days from last furnishing (even 8 months in New York!). The same is not true for Canada, where lien deadlines are generally within 30-60 days from last furnishing.
Mechanic’s Lien Rights in Canada at a Glance
The National Lien Digest provides greater detail, but here are the general lien deadlines for all 13 provinces/territories:
|Alberta||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 45 days from last furnishing and completion||Within 180 days from filing lien|
|British Columbia||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 45 days from Certificate of Completion or completion||Within 1 year from filing lien|
|Manitoba||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 40 days from last furnishing and completion||Within 2 years from filing lien|
|New Brunswick||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 60 days from last furnishing||Within 90 days from filing lien or expiry of credit period|
|Newfoundland / Labrador||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 30 days from last furnishing and completion||Within 90 days from last furnishing and completion|
|Northwest Territories||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 45 days from last furnishing and completion||Within 45 days from lien deadline or within 90 days from expiry of credit period|
|Nova Scotia||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 60 days from last furnishing and completion||Within 90 days from last furnishing or 105 days if expiry of credit period is stated within lien|
|Nunavut||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 45 days from last furnishing and completion||Within 45 days from lien deadline or within 90 days from expiry of credit period|
|Ontario||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 60 days from last furnishing and completion||Within 90 days from the lien deadline|
|Prince Edward Island||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 60 days from last furnishing and completion||Within 90 days from filing lien|
|Quebec||Serve prior to furnishing or prior to fabrication||Within 30 days after completion||Within 6 months after completion|
|Saskatchewan||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 40 days from certificate of substantial performance or completion||Trial must be set within 2 years from filing suit|
|Yukon Territory||Non-statutory notice recommended||Within 30 days from last furnishing||Within 90 days from last furnishing and completion|
Earlier I mentioned Ontario recently modernized their mechanic’s lien statute. Part of the modernization included the implementation of a longer lien filing period, giving would be claimants an additional 15 days to file their liens. (Lien deadline used to be 45 days from last furnishing.)
Advice for Lien Rights in Canada
Because deadlines are short, carefully track your deadlines, monitor open invoices, and maintain an open line of communication with your customer.
If you have questions about securing lien rights in Canada or need assistance with filing a lien, please contact us! In addition to our network of attorneys in the U.S., NCS has a well-established network of attorneys in Canada who are prepared to assist with your claim.